Table of Topics

Algorithms, Data Structures and Things Computational
Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems
Computing in a Humanities Discipline (History)
Design Production and Generative Aesthetics
Digitization and Sampling
Display and Visualization
Games and Game Design
Geographic Information Systems (GIS)
Graduate Programs
Histories of Computing
Humanities Computing
Material Conditions of Digital Production
Natural Language Processing
New Media
Structured Information
Textuality and Discourse Fields

Algorithms, Data Structures and Things Computational

  1. Chaitin, G. J. "A Century of Controversy over the Foundations of Mathematics" _Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science Distinguished Lecture_. 2 March 2000. Chaitin, G.J. _Home page_. September 2001. <>. This is G.J. Chaitin's March 2000 Distinguished Lecture at Carnegie Mellon University School of Computer Science. It's more than usually chatty (even for a speech), but it's one of the clearest explications of the subject I've come across. Chaitin sees the computer as a side effect of a moment of crisis and uncertainty near the beginning of the century.
  2. Colburn, Timothy. "Models of Reasoning" Philosophy and Computer Science. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe, 2000. Some philosophizing on the nature of reasoning in a computational context. An object lesson in what computers can (or can't) do.
  3. Davis, Martin. "Beyond Leibniz's Dream" The Universal Computer: the road from Leibniz to Turing. New York: W.W. Norton, 2000. This epilogue to Davis's book is a response to some interesting statements by the philosopher John Searle on the subject of what computers can and cannot do.
  4. Knuth, Donald. "Basic Concepts" The Art of Computer Programming. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1997. The preface to what is arguably the most famous book ever written on the subject of algorithms and data structures. Contains Knuth's explanation of what an algorithm is.
  5. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems

  6. Bringsjord, Selmer and David A. Ferrucci. "Setting the Stage." Artificial Intelligence and Literary Creativity." 2000. First chapter in Bringsjord's latest books. Provides the theoretical and historical background for his current project, BRUTUS, a system that generates short stories. Bringsjord argues that creativity and narrative are central to human intelligence.
  7. Crevier, Daniel. "The Tree of Knowledge." AI. New York: Basic Books, 1993. An account of the early history and basic concepts of expert systems.
  8. Copeland, Jack. Artificial Intelligence: a Philosophical Introduction. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell Publishers, 1993.
  9. Dennet, Daniel C. "The Practical Requirements for Making a Conscious Robot." Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, A 349: 1994. 133-46. Center for Cognitive Studies. Main page. April 2002. <>. Dennet describes Cog, the robot being built by Rodney Brooks, Lynn Andrea Stein and others in the AI Lab at MIT ( Cog was designed as an "infant" that would learn through interaction with the world. Dennet argues that embodiment in the real world is crucial to consciousness.
  10. Dreyfus, Hubert. What Computers Can't Do: the Limits of Artificial Intelligence. New York: Harper & Row, 1979. Returns to Locke and Descartes in a criticism of artificial intelligence.
  11. ---. What Computers Still Can't Do: a Critique of Artificial Reason. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992.
  12. Glymore, Clark. Thinking Things Through. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992. Bringsjord recommends this for its account of the philosophical origins of artificial intelligence.
  13. John Haugeland. Artificial Intelligence: The Very Idea. MIT P, Cambridge, 1985. Analysis of the intellectual foundations underlying AI - Haugeland goes back at least to Galileo and later philophers/mathematicians.
  14. McCorduck, Pamela. Machines Who Think. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman, 1979.
  15. Searle, John. "Minds, Brains, and Programs." Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3.3 (1980): 417-457. The (in)famous Chinese Room argument. Searle argues against "Strong AI" and its claims that a computer that can mimic the functionality of the mind is a mind. Computers might be capable of syntactic processing but they can't understand the semantic meaning of language.
  16. Turing, A.M. "Computing Machinery and Intelligence." Mind LIX.26 (October 1950): 433-60. Rpt. in Computer Media and Communication. Ed. Paul A. Mayer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. The famous Turing Test.
  17. Wiener, Norbert. "Cybernetics in History" The Human Use of Human Beings. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1954. A sort of introduction to the second edition of Wiener's book originally published in 1950. Wiener claims that his book is an introduction to cybernetics for laypersons. He argues that human society is best understood through a study of its communications and that mankind is best understood through a study of its feedback control mechanisms.
  18. Winograd, Terry and Carlos Flores. Understanding Computers and Cognition: a New Foundation for Design. Norwood, NJ: Ablex Publishing Corp., 1996. Application of phenomenology to computing and artificial intelligence.

    Computing in Humanities Disciplines


  19. Barzun, J. "History: The Muse and Her Doctors." American Historical Review 77 (1972): 36-64.
  20. Bogue, A. G. "Great Expectations and Secular Depreciation: The First 10 Years of the Social Science History Association," Social Science History 11 (1987).
  21. Clubb, J. M. "The 'New' Quantitative History: Social Science or Old Wine in New Bottles?" Historical Sociological Research. Ed. J. M. Clubb and E. K. Scheuch. 19-24.
  22. Clubb, J.M. and H. Allen. "Computers and Historical Studies," Journal of American History, 54 (1967): 599-607.
  23. David, Paul et. al. Reckoning with Slavery: A Critical Study in the Quantitative History of American Negro Slavery. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.
  24. Denley, Peter and Deian Hopkin, eds. History and Computing. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1987.
  25. Denley, Peter, Stefan Fogelvik, and Charles Harvey, eds. History and Computing II.Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1989.
  26. Erikson, C. "Quantitative History." American Historical Review 80 (1975): 351-65.
  27. Fitch, N. "Statistical Fantasies and Historical Facts: History in Crisis and its Methodological Implications." Historical Methods 17 (1984): 239-54.
  28. Fogel, Robert William and Stanley Engerman. Time on the Cross: the Economics of American Slavery. Vol. I and II. Boston: Little & Brown, 1974.
  29. Fogel, Robert William and G.R. Elton. Which Road to the Past? Two Views of History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1983.
  30. ---. Without Consent or Contract: the Rise and Fall of American Slavery. New York: Norton, 1989.
  31. Gutman, Herbert. Slavery and the Numbers Game: A Critique of "Time on the Cross." Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1975.
  32. Harvey, Charles and Jon Press. Databases in Historical Research: Theory, Methods, and Applications. London: McMillan Press, 1996. Includes an excellent bibliography.
  33. Haskins, Loren and Kirk Jeffrey. Understanding Quantitative History. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1990.
  34. Himmelfarb, G. The New History and the Old. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1987.
  35. Kousser, J. Morgan. "The State of Social Science History in the late 1980s," Historical Methods 22 (1989): 13-20.
  36. Mawdsley, Evan and Thomas Munck. Computing for Historians: An Introductory Guide. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993.
  37. Design Production and Generative Aesthetics

  38. Max Bense, "The Projects of Generative Aesthetics," Computers in Art. Ed. Jasia Reichardt. London: Studio Vista, 1971. Max Bense's essay is important as a pointer towards the realm of artistic intervention in digital media. A classic essay, from the 1960s, Bense's work was produced at the intersection of mathematics, concrete and visual poetry, and procedural aesthetics -- an aspect of minimalism and conceptualism central to artistic practice in the 1960s. (The "Information" exhibition at MoMA in 1970 was the first summary survey of this work, which gives an idea of the historical moment at which the first generation of digital art perceived itself as coming of age.)
  39. Jacques Bertin, "General Theory," The Semiology of Graphics. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1983. 2-13. Dry as unsoaked beans, this outline of Bertin's approach to graphics provides a foundation for analysis of information and its translation into graphic form. This section outlines the entire book in schematic, reductive form. The sub-section "A. analysis of information" (p.5-6 in the summary, p. 16-39 in the book) is particularly useful for humanists, since it provides a working method for translating linguistic formulations into graphical diagrams comprised of "invariant" and "component" parts. The page comprised of the fundamental variables of a graphic system, reproduced in minature in Mijksenaar, might be the single most valuable page of information in any of these works.
  40. Stuart K. Card, Jock D. Mackinlay, Ben Shneiderman, "Chapter 1, Information Visualization" Readings in Information Visualization. San Francisco: Morgan Kaufmann, Publishers Inc., 1999. 1-34. An extremely useful overview of the field, this introduction to the visualization of data in digital environments serves as the synthetic summary at the outset of a collection of papers that address specific visualization problems, solutions, and software developments. In a pedagogical situation, this work provides authoritative grounding in the techniques of information visualization, but is utterly unselfconscious about aesthetics.
  41. Horn, Robert E. Visual Language: Global Communication for the 21st Century. Bainbridge Island, WA: MacroVU Press, 1999.
  42. Ellen Lupton and J. Abbott Miller, "Deconstruction and Graphic Design," Design, Writing, Research. NY: Princeton Architectural Press, 1996. 3-23. The best, most serious and lucid of designer-theorists, Lupton and Miller demonstrate as well as discuss their principles. The entire book is expertly designed, and the lessons it presents in the first section could provide a useful foundation for analysis of information presentation in print format. They are not, in this work, concerned with the electronic space of information manipulation or display.
  43. MacEachren, Alan. How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization and Design. New York: Guilford Press, 1995. Simply the best overall summary of theories of vision, cognition, semiotics, mapping, and representation systems. Thorough, lucid, reliable. Only overlooks its own aesthetics.
  44. Theo Mandel, "The Golden Rules of User Interface Design," The Elements of User Interface Design. NY: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 1997. 47-71. Completely sensible, well-thought out analysis of interface based on principles of cognitive psychology. Useful reading in advance of designing an interface and crucial reading for critical discussion of interfaces. Absolutely straightforward, how-to from a perspective of fundamental principles of human interaction with information in a digital environment.
  45. Paul Mijksenaar, "Visual Information" and "Graphical Variables," Visual Function. Princeton: Princeton Architectural Press, 1997. 28-42. Not as elegant in design as in concept, this work is most useful for its succinct brevity and the economy with which it touches on fundamentals. The distinctions of categories of visual information and suggestions about effective means of communicating them graphically are presented here in a useful shorthand form.
  46. Tufte, Edward. Envisioning Information. Cheshire, CN: Graphics Press, 1990. Tufte is rational and is thus appealing to certain communities. He refers to the information as something separate from the form; he searches for a form to contain some information. Information is prior.
  47. Digitization and Sampling

  48. Benjamin, Walter. "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction." Illuminations. New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1968. 217-52. Digitized images are in a history of images and machines. For a theoretical discussion that is a classic in the field we can turn to Walter Benjamin "The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction". While this essay is about photography it raises many of the issues we have about the materiality of digital images and their art.
  49. Gombrich, E.H. "From Light into Paint." Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1972. Gombrich "From Light into Paint" is about painting, but discusses how paintings represent and transmit information. Gombrich quotes Churchill to the effect that paintings are transmitted in code which we learn to decrypt. We have discussed how sophisticated books are as knowledge machines, here is a perspective on painting that reminds us how paintings might work in a way that connects to digital images.
  50. Ifrah, Georges. "Binary Arithmetic and Non-Decimal Systems." The Universal History of the Computer. The history of binary math up to the computer is treated in Ifrah's "Binary Arithmetic and Other Non-Decimal Systems" from The Universal History of the Computer. Included in that selection are also other parts of the book on Analogue Computation and Analogue Calculators. (See the Poster selection below on the analogue and digital.)
  51. Mitchell, W.J.T. "Electronic Tools." The Reconfigured Eye: Visual Truth in the Post-Photographic Age. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992. Image digitization has a history. Mitchell's chapter "Electronic Tools" is from "The Reconfigured Eye" which is an excellent discussion of digital imaging and how it is changing our notions of truth in images. The chapter digitized approaches the tools and techniques from a historical perspective. Note how Mitchell comments that digitizing images like digitizing audio is a matter of sampling and quantizing.
  52. Petzold, Charles. "Bit by Bit by Bit" Code. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Press, 1999. For a more gentle introduction to binary communications systems see Petzold "Bit by Bit by Bit" from his book on Code. This includes a discussion of bar codes if you have wondered how they work.
  53. Poster, Mark. "Analogue and Digital" Print and Digital Authorship. Arhaus, Denmark: Papers from the Centre for Internet Research, 2001. Finally I have included a short exerpt from Mark Poster's essay "Print and Digital Authorship" on the difference between the analogue and the digital.
  54. Shannon, Claude and Warren Weaver. "Introduction" The Mathematical Theory of Communication. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press, 1949. Petzold's discussion will then help you make sense of Shannon and Weaver's introduction to The Mathematical Theory of Communication which deals with the quantification of information.
  55. Tannenbaum, Robert S. Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia. New York: W. H. Freeman, 1998. The tools and techniques used for digitizing media also need to be understood. "Hardware that Enables Multimedia" from a multimedia textbook is a survey of multimedia hardware including digital cameras and audio capture systems. It covers more than we need, but is a good overview if you ever wondered how a digital camera works.
  56. Walters, E. Garrison. The Essential Guide to Computing. Upper Saddle River: Prentice Hall, 2001. When digitizing images one needs to think of the outcomes - the anticipated uses of the digital images for which reason one needs to think about the screen as the primary output device on which digital images are viewed. "Computer Monitors and Graphics Systems" is an introduction to computer graphics and how screens work from a computer graphics book.
  57. Display and Visualization

  58. Bertin, Jacques. Semiology of Graphics. Madison: University of Minnesota Press, 1983.
  59. Cleveland, William. Visualizing Data. 1993.
  60. McCleod, Raymond. "Fiat flux." Crisis in Editing: Texts of the English Renaissance. Proceedings of the Twenty-Fourth Annual Conference on Editorial Problems. 4-5 November 1988. Ed. Raymond McCleod. New York: AMS Press.
  61. ---. "Information on Information." Text: Transactions of the Society for Textual Scholarship. 5:241-81. 1991.
  62. Ong, Walter. Ramus: Method, and the Decay of Dialogue; from the Art of Discourse to the Art of Reason. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1958.
  63. Fiction

  64. Asimov, Issac. I, Robot. 1970.
  65. Ballard, J.G. "Concentration City", "The Voices of Time."
  66. Bradbury, Ray. "The Veldt" ("The World the Children Made"). 1950.
  67. Burgess, Anthony. A Clockwork Orange. 1963.
  68. Clarke, Arthur C. Childhood's End. 1953.
  69. DeLillo, Don. White Noise. 1985.
  70. Dick, Phillip K. Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? 1968.
  71. Ellison, Harlan. Slippage. 1997.
  72. Gibson, William. Neuromancer. 1984.
  73. Hoffman, E.T.A. "The Sandman."
  74. Lem, Stanislaw. Cyberiad. 1967.
  75. Orwell, George. 1984. 1949.
  76. Powers, Richard. Galatea 2.2. New York: Farrar Straus Giroux, 1995.
  77. Stephenson, Neal. Cryptonomicon. 1999.
  78. Wells, H.G. The Time Machine. 1931.
  79. Film

  80. Blade Runner. Dir. Ridley Scott. 1982.
  81. Brazil. Dir. Terry Gilliam. 1985.
  82. A Clockwork Orange. Dir. Stanley Kubrick. 1971.
  83. Desk Set. Dir. Walter Lang. 1957.
  84. Gattaca. Dir. Andrew Niccol. 1997.
  85. The Matrix. Dir. Andy Wachowski and Larry Wachowski. 1999.
  86. Robocop. Dir. Paul Verhoeven. 1987.
  87. Sleeper. Dir. Woody Allen. 1973.
  88. 2001: A Space Odyssey. Dir. Stanley Kubrick. 1968.
  89. The Terminator. Dir. James Cameron. 1984.
  90. Tron. Dir. Steven Lisberger. 1982.
  91. Games and Game Design

  92. Aarseth, Espen. Cybertext. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.
  93. Barwood, Hal. "400 Project."
  94. Church, Doug. "Formal Abstract Design Tools." Gamasutra. 16 July 1999. April 2002. <>.
  95. Costikyan, Greg. "I Have No Words and I Must Design." Interactive Fantasy #2. 1994. Home page. April 2002. <>.
  96. Crawford, Chirs. Art of Computer Game Design. 1982. Ed. Sue Peabody. 1997. <>
  97. Gadamer, Hans Georg. Truth and Method.
  98. Huizinga, Johan. Chapter 1. Homo Ludens.
  99. International Game Developers Association. Curriculum Framework. IGDA Academic Summit. 19-20 March 2002.
  100. Kreimeier, Bernd. "Content Patterns in Game Design." Game Developers Conference. 4-8 March 2003.
  101. Rieber, L.P. "Seriously Considering Play: Designing interactive learning environments based on the blending of microworlds, simulations and games."Educational Technology Research & Development. 44(2): 43-58. Home page. <>.
  102. Rieber reviews the concept of play from an instructional technology perspective.
  103. Shubik, Martin. "Game Theory, Complexity and Simplicity Part I: A Tutorial." Complexity 3:2 (November/December 1997).
  104. ---. "Game Theory, Complexity and Simplicity Part II: Problems and Applications." Complexity 3:3 (January/February 1998).
  105. ---. "Game Theory, Complexity and Simplicity Part III: Critique and Prospective." Complexity 3:5 (May 1998).
  106. ---. "On the Scope of Gaming." Management Science 18:5 (January 1972).
  107. Wittgenstein, Ludwig. Section 365. Philosophical Investigations.
  108. Geographic Information Systems (GIS)

  109. Chrisman, Nicholas. Paper presented at Auto-Carto 8. 1988. Argues that GIS must be socially, economically and politically responsible.
  110. Curry, Michael, Ed. Digital Places: Living with Geographic Information Technologies. New York: Routledge, 1998. In chapters 3 and 5, Curry examines GIS as a mode of representation, and the pressure that it exerts on Geography as a discipline and it's challenges to scientific method.
  111. Dodge, Martin. "Spatializing Cyberspace." Mapping Cyberspace. New York: Routledge, 2001. 107-128. Not really about GIS, but a review of attempts to represent information technologies and communities spatially. See for color plates from this and other chapters.
  112. Harris, Trevor. "Pursuing Social Goals Through Participatory Geographic Information Systems." Ground Truth: the Social Implications of Geographic Information Systems. Ed. John Pickles. New York: Guilford Press, 1995. 196-222. Case study of use of GIS in South Africa, touching on the social theory discussions in Geography surrounding GIS and its uses.
  113. Knowles, Anne Kelly. "Introduction" Past Time, Past Place: GIS for History. Redlands, CA: ESRI Press, 2002. A draft introduction to a forthcoming title on GIS as a tool for historical research. Very brief.
  114. Longley, Paul A. "Introduction." Geographical Information Systems, Vol. 1. Chichester, NY: John Wiley, 1999. 1 - 20. This introduction to a comprehensive overview of GIS attempts to provide a brief, but not deep, history of GIS and the directions in which it has spun in recent years.
  115. Openshaw, Stan. "A view on the GIS crisis in geography, or, using GIS to put Humpty-Dumpty back together again." Environment and Planning. 23 (May 1991): 621-8. Violent criticism GIS as positivist and naive empiricism.
  116. Pickles, John, Ed. Ground Truth: The Social Implications of Geographic Information Systems. New York: Guilford Press, 1995. Probably the most important book on GIS.
  117. Graduate Programs

  118. McCarty, Willard and Matthew G. Kirschenbaum. Humanities Computing: institutional models. <>. Includes a complete listing of universities offering degrees in digital humanities.
  119. Applied Computing in the Humanities. Centre for Computing in the Humanities, King's College London. <>. The Programme is designed for students intending to go on to a PhD in a humanities discipline as well as those engaged in or planning to begin careers in museums, libraries, business and the public services. "At the core of the Programme", our prospectus notes, "is the meeting between the formal rigour of computational methods and the imaginative diversity of cultural expression. The Programme emphasizes in theory and practice the consistency and explicitness that the computer requires while highlighting through case-studies the kinds of knowledge which inevitably escape these rigorous demands. By creating structured models out of the irregular and disparate data of the humanities, the student learns to judge when the application of computing may lead to useful or interesting results and also to learn how the analytical and practical processes can throw new light on the object of study. By combining the divergent perspectives of computing and the humanities, the student encounters in a concrete way the question of how we know what we know. This question is developed throughout as an essential tool for better critical thinking."
  120. MA in Humanities Computing. University of Alberta. <>. The program integrates computational methods and theories with research and teaching in the humanities. It will address the demand for Arts graduates proficient in computing skills, able to work either in the realm of humanities research and teaching or in the emerging job markets of information management and content delivery over the Internet. In a set of core courses, students survey humanities computing and its underlying technologies as they are employed in disciplines such as history, literature, languages, cultural studies, philosophy, music and visual arts. The aim is to show how computing is enabling and transforming humanities research and teaching, and to impart technical knowledge through hands-on experience with creation, delivery, and analysis of electronic text and non-textual data and images. In the second year, the students extend their knowledge of humanities computing by taking elective courses, including at least one in a humanities discipline in which they specialize, and a thesis in which they address a research or teaching issue in their discipline.
  121. Texts and Technology Ph.D. Program. University of Central Florida. <>. Our doctoral program in Texts and Technology establishes an exciting new academic field linking textual studies with the digital technologies of today and tomorrow. This interdisciplinary research program extrapolates traditional English textual studies in various media into the digital future. Texts include visual, audio, multimedia, hypertexts, and other digital material as well as printed and spoken words. Because this program is unique and innovative, it will serve as a model for similar programs throughout the country while it provides leaders to help create those programs. The result is a foretaste of the English department of the future. Both a teaching practicum and professional internship experience are required of all students to familiarize them with textual technologies from both the academic and professional perspectives. Academic graduates will be prepared for research, teaching, and leadership in program development. Professional graduates will be prepared for research in Web design, multimedia production, distributed education, entertainment, publishing or information architecture and visualization.
  122. Histories of Computing and Computation


  123. Cerf, Vinton. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks. Reston, Virginia: Internet Society, 1992.
  124. Goldberg, Adele. A History of Personal Workstations. New York: ACM Press, 1988.
  125. Hafner, Katie and Matthew Lyon. Where Wizards Stay Up Late: the Origins of the Internet. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.
  126. Stephenson, Neal. In the Beginning . . . Was the Command Line. New York: Avon Books, 1999. <>.
  127. Randell, B., ed. The Origins of Digital Computers. New York: Springer Verlag, 1975.
  128. Rheingold, Harold. Tools For Thought. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2000.
  129. Shurkin, Joel. Engines of the Mind; The Evolution of the Computer from Mainframes to Microprocessors. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 1984.
  130. Intellectual

  131. Peter B. Anderson. A Theory of Computer Semiotics. Cambridge UP, New York, 2nd. edition. Doctoral dissertation that deals with the semiotics of the computer on the interface and the programming level (it inspired a number of ideas in Aarseths thesis on cybertext). The 2nd ed. has a short introduction discussing literature following the first ed.
  132. J. David Bolter. Turing's Man: Western Culture in the Computer Age. U of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, 1984.
  133. Martin Davis. The Universal Computer, chapter 2: "Boole Turns Logic into Algebra", pages 21-40. Norton, New York, 2000. I think Chapters 3 and 4 on Frege and Cantor are also useful.
  134. Morrison, P. and E., ed. Charles Babbage, Selected Writings. New York: Dover Books, 1961.
  135. N. O. Finneman. Thought, Sign, and Machine: The Computer Reconsidered. <>. A doctoral dissertation dealing with the symbolic properties of the computer, argued to be defined by a new alphabeth: informational notation (the binary code) that differs from both earlier formal and natural languages.
  136. Niels Ole Finneman. "Modernity Modernized." Computer Media and Communication. London: Oxford UP, 1999. I particularly recommend pages 141-148 for their discussion of formal and informational notation systems.
  137. Michael Hobart and Zachary S. Schiffman. "Analysis Uprooted." Information Ages. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1998. 175-201. This section and Chapter 8 add to the general insights on Boole, Babbage, Turing.
  138. Sociological

  139. Daniel Bell. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society: A Venture In Social Forecasting. Basic Books, New York, 1973. Important early work in sociology on the information society.
  140. James R. Beniger. The Control Revolution: Technological and Economic Origins of the Information Society. Harvard UP, Cambridge, 1986. Beniger engages critically with the notion of post-industrial society formulated by Daniel Bell in the early 70's. He takes a close look at a number of control crises in american history and the technologies of information (telegraph, punch cards etc. - he discusses very many technologies) that were developed to solve them.
  141. Manuel Castells. The Rise of the Network Society. Blackwell, Cambridge, 1996. Important recent work on the information society.
  142. Humanities Computing

  143. Busa, R. "The Annals of Humanities Computing: The Idex Thomisticus." Computers and the Humanities 14 (1980): 83-90.
  144. Chapelle, Carol, and Joan Jamieson. "Language Lessons on the Plato IV System." System 11.1 (1983): 13-20.
  145. McCarty, Willard. "Humanities Computing." The Encyclopedia of Library and Information Science. New York: Dekker, 2003. Preliminary draft available at <>.
  146. Raban, Joseph. "Humanities Computing 25 Years Later." Computers and the Humanities 25.6 (1991): 341-350.
  147. Interface

  148. Bush, Vannevar. "As We May Think." The Atlantic Monthly. July 1945: 101-8. October 2002. <>. The classic speculative interface essay.
  149. Engelbart, Douglas. "A Conceptual Framework for the Augmentation of Man's Intellect." The Augmentation of Man's Intellect by Machine. Eds. Howerton and Weeks. Washington D.C.: Spartan Books, 1963. Rpt. in Computer Media and Communication. Ed. Paul A. Mayer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. This essay lays out the concept of interface as augmentation.
  150. Kay, Alan. "Doing With Images Makes Symbols: Communicating with Computers." The Distinguished Lecture Series: Industry Leaders in Computer Science. Computer Museum History Center. 1987. 12 June 2002. <>. This talk tells the story of the design of the "windows & mouse" style of user interface, most well known on the Apple Macintosh. We start in the '60s iwht Ketchpad, NLS and Grail and see how these seminal ideas influenced the Smalltalk work with children at Xerox PARC. Finally we explore human psychology and the multimentality theories that helped the PARC designers' work. [Annotation taken from Computer Musuem History Center's Web site.]
  151. Licklider, J.C.R. "Man-Computer Symbiosis." IRE Transactions on Human Factors in Electronics. March 1960. Rpt. in Computer Media and Communication. Ed. Paul A. Mayer. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999. This classic essay lays out the concept of interface as automation.
  152. Norman, Donald A. The Design of Everyday Things. New York: Doubleday, 1990.
  153. ---. User-Centered System Design. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1986.
  154. Pynchon, Thomas "Heart-to-Heart, Man-to-Man" Gravity's Rainbow. New York: Viking Press, 1973. A very short, two-page passage that raises some critical ideas about the nature of interface, and is clearly the section from which Gibson stole the whole conceptual framework for Neuromancer.
  155. Material Conditions of Digital Production

  156. Goodman, Nelson. Languages of Art. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1968.
  157. Ivins, William M., Jr. Prints and Visual Communication. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1953.
  158. Druckrey, Timothy, ed. Electronic Culture: Technology and Visual Representation. New York: Aperture, 1996.
  159. Mathematics

  160. Rosen, Kenneth H. Discrete Mathematics and Its Applications. 4th ed. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1999.
  161. Tukey, John. Exploratory Data Analysis. 1977.
  162. Natural Language Processing

  163. Allen, James. Natural Language Understanding. Redwood City, CA: Benjamin/Cummings, 1995.
  164. Baker, Mark. The Atoms of Language. New York: Basic Books, 2001.
  165. Jurafsky, Daniel and James H. Martin. "Introduction." Speech and Language Processing: An Introduction to Natural Language Processing, Computational Linguistics, and Speech Recognition. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice, 2000.
  166. Manning, Christopher D. and Heinrich Schutze. "Introduction." Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing. Cambridge: MIT Press, 2001.
  167. McCarty, Willard. Introduction to Concording and Text-Analysis: History, Theory, and Methodology. CETH Summer Seminar. Ed. Susan Hockey and Willard McCarty. Princeton, New Jersey: CETH, 1996. Section 5.
  168. New Media

  169. Barrett, Edward, ed. Sociomedia: Multimedia, Hypermedia, and the Social Construction of Knowledge. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1992. 581.
  170. Cotton, Bob, and Richard Oliver. Understanding Hypermedia: From Multimedia to Virtual Reality. London: Phaidon, 1992. 160.
  171. Hardison, O.B. Jr. Disappearing Through the Skylight: Culture and Technology in the Twentieth Century. New York: Viking Penguin, 1989.
  172. Laurel, Brenda. Computers As Theatre. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley, 1991.
  173. Manovich, Lev. The Language of New Media. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 2001.
  174. Murray, Janet H. Hamlet on the Holodeck; The Future of Narrative in Cyberspace. Cambridge, Massachusetts: MIT Press, 1997.
  175. Nielsen, Jakob. Multimedia and Hypertext: The Internet and Beyond. Boston: AP Professional, 1995.
  176. Tannenbaum, Robert S. Theoretical Foundations of Multimedia. New York: Computer Science Press, 1998. 624.
  177. Programming

  178. Bergin, Thomas J., and Richard G. Gibson, ed. History of Programming Languages-II. 2nd ed. New York: ACM Press, 1996. 864.
  179. Nino, Jaime and F. Hosch. "Chapter One" An Introduction to Programming and Object-Oriented Design using Java. New York: John Wiley, 2000.
  180. Structured Information

  181. ACM. 44:10 (October 2001). Sowa touched on "aspect oriented" (postmodern) data structures and programming. This issue of ACM includes several articles on the subjects.
  182. Bowker, Geoffrey C., and Susan Leigh Starr. Sorting Things Out: Classification and Its Consequences. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1999.
  183. Peter Burke. A Social History of Knowledge: From Gutenberg to Diderot. Polity, Cambridge, 2000. Interesting book on changes in knowledge representation and organization in the centuries following the printing press (not really about the computer at all).
  184. McLellan, Tim. "Data Modeling: Finding the Perfect Fit." Home page. 1995. October 2001. <>.
  185. Quine, W.V. On What There is, in From a Logical Point of View. 1948. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1953. Classic paper on existence and ontological commitment. First published in the Review of Metaphysics.
  186. Pitti, Daniel and John Unsworth. "After the Fall: Structured Data at IATH." Joint International Conference of the Association for Literary and Linguistic Computing and the Association for Computers and the Humanities. 1998. _IATH main page_. October 2002. <>.
  187. Sowa, John. "Signs, Processes, and Language Games: Foundations for Ontology." Home Page. <>.
  188. Svenonius, E. The Intellectual Foundation of Information Organization. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, 2000.
  189. Databases

  190. Darcy, R. and Richard C. Rohrs. "Multiple Regression." A Guide to Quantitative History. Westport, Conn: Praeger, 1995.
  191. Harvey, Charles and Jon Press. "Databases in Historical Research." Databases in Historical Research: Theory, Methods and Applications. Macmillan, 1996.
  192. Jarausch, Konrad. "Interpretation and Theory Formation." Quantitative Methods for Historians: a guide to research, data and statistics. Chapel Hill: UNC Press, 1991.
  193. Stajano, Frank. "A Gentle Introduction to Relational and Object-Oriented Databases" Home page. October 2002. <>.
  194. Markup

  195. Barnard, David, Burnard, Lou, Gaspart, Jean-Pierre, Price, Lynne A., Sperberg-McQueen, C. M. and Giovanni Battista Varile. "Hierarchical Encoding of Text: Technical Problems and SGML Solutions." Computers and the Humanities 29:3 (1995). 211-231.
  196. Biggs, Michael; Huitfeldt, Claus. "Philosophy and electronic publishing. The theory and metatheory in the development of text encoding." The Monist 80 (1997): 348-366. <>.
  197. Buzzetti, Dino. "Digital Representation and the Text Model." NLH 33.1 (Winter 2002). Buzzetti, a logician who studies the history of philosophy, proposes a new approach to text. The essential part of this article is its critique of SGML and TEI. A must be read by anyone doing markup.
  198. Caton, Paul. "Markup's Current Imbalance". Extreme Markup Languages 2000. August 2000. <>.
  199. Coombs, James H.; Renear, Allen H.; DeRose, Steven J. "Markup Systems and the Future of Scholarly Text Processing." Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery 30:11 (1987): 933-947. <>.
  200. DeRose, Steven J.; Durand, David G.; Mylonas, Elli; Renear, Allen H. "What is Text, Really?" Journal of Computing in Higher Education 1:2 (Winter 1990): 3-26.
  201. Giordano, R.W. "Encoding, Interpretation and Theory" ALLC-ACH '96 Abstracts. Bergen, Norway. 105-110. < >.
  202. Goldfarb, Charles F. "A Generalized Approach to Document Markup." ACM SIGPLAN SIGOA Symposium on Text Manipulation. SIGPLAN Notices. 16:6 (1981): 68-73.
  203. Piez, Wendell. "Beyond the 'Descriptive vs. Procedural' Distinction." Extreme Markup Languages 2001. August 2001. <>.
  204. Renear, Allen, David Durand, and Elli Mylonas. "Refining our notion of what text really is: The problem of overlapping hierarchies". Research in Humanities Computing. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995. <>.
  205. Simons, Gary F. "Conceptual Modeling Versus Visual Modeling: A Technological Key to Building Consensus." Computers and the Humanities 30:4 (1996/1997): 303-319.
  206. "A Gentle Introduction to XML.", from Sperberg-McQueen, C. Michael and Lou Burnard, eds. (2002) TEI P4: Guidelines for Electronic Text Encoding and Interchange. Text Encoding Initiative Consortium. XML Version: Oxford, Providence, Charlottesville, Bergen. <
  207. Sperberg-McQueen, C. Michael, Huitfeldt, Claus and Allen Renear. "Meaning and Interpretation of Markup." Markup Languages: Theory & Practice 2:3 (Summer 2000): 215-234. <>.
  208. Just In Time Markup (JITM)

  209. Berrie, Phillip. "Just In Time Markup for Electronic Editions." Apple University Consortium Academic and Developer Conference 2000. Wollongong, Australia, September 2000. <>.
  210. COCOA

  211. Oakman, Robert L. "COCOA." Howard-Hill, T. H., Literary Concordances. Pergamon: Oxford, 1979. Appendix on COCOA.
  212. Lancashire, Ian, et al. Using TACT with Electronic Texts. Modern Languages Association of America: New York, 1996.
  213. One of the best sources of information about TACT and encoding with COCOA for TACT.

    Textuality and Discourse Fields

  214. Aarseth, Espen. "Introduction: Ergodic Literature" Cybertext. Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.
  215. Buzzetti, Dino. "Digital Representation and the Text Model." NLH 33.1 (Winter 2002). Buzzetti, a logician who studies the history of philosophy, proposes a new approach to text. The essential part of this article is its critique of SGML and TEI. A must be read by anyone doing markup.
  216. McGann, Jerome. "Rethinking Textuality" Radiant Textuality. New York: Palgrave, 2001.
  217. McKenzie, D.F. Bibliography and the Sociology of Texts. London: British Library, 1986.
  218. Shillingsburg, Peter. "Forms" Scholarly Editing in the Computer Age. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1996. A standard account of the various approaches to textual editing.

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